Pildes kicked off oral argument by explaining the basic factual background of the case, and describing what was at stake—legalizing unfettered racial quotas in redistricting. As Pildes warns, racial quotas are “a dangerous business.” Depending on their use, they can give political power to minority groups or “polarize and isolate” by race. Chief Justice Roberts expresses a concern that is a continuing theme of the conservative justices throughout the oral argument: how can the states distinguish between the two?