In this excerpt, Patricia Millett, attorney for those challenging the Arizona law, argues that it was up to Congress to balance the need to streamline registration against the extremely low likelihood that noncitizens would risk deportation, and criminal charges of perjury, by fraudulently registering to vote. In the context of the NVRA, which governs federal elections, Congress has made the legislative judgment that there are sufficient procedures to ensure voter integrity. Arizona has imposed its own judgment in conflict with federal law and the Constitution, which gives states no power to preempt federal judgments in this area of law. Here, Justice Scalia questions Millett on the extent of the harm imposed by Arizona’s additional requirements.