In this short exchange, Pildes is attempting to respond to a question from Justice Stephen Breyer exploring the difference between political gerrymandering and racial gerrymandering. Justice Scalia jumps in to assert that African Americans are, in his words, overwhelmingly Democrats. Pildes explains that stereotypes about minority groups are not enough. There needs to be evidence about how they are voting in order for a decision to be partisan rather than racial. In this case, the state of Alabama decided to implement racial quotas without ever considering the actual voting behaviors of those minority groups.